Nevertheless, the Persian of the time served as a for these enlisted men.They were to spread this new version in the conquered provinces, from Azerbaijan to Central Asia, to the detriment of other Iranian languages or other dialects of Persian.The fourteenth century serves as a transitional bridge between the previous and the subsequent periods: Mongol and Timurid, followed then by the Safavids in Persia and the Mughals in India.

Bilingualism among the cultural elite was a notable feature of the era.

Far from bringing to an end the use of the Persian language, both spoken and written, in Persia or elsewhere, the successful invasion of Iran by the Arab armies in the seventh century merely heralded a process of evolution (Lazard, IV, pp. It was by this long process of evolution that Middle Persian, the language of the Sasanian court (ca.

A man of letters in this period was usually familiar with the arts and sciences of his time and revered for his learning.

In the 12th century, for example, Ḵāqāni was a great Modern Persian, which is ultimately derived from Old Iranian (Lazard, 2003, pp.

Such was the case of Sogdian, a language belonging to an age-old culture that was largely engulfed by Persian.

Thus Persian became, in due course, the court language of the first semi-independent Muslim principalities, most notably those founded in the Greater Khorasan.

With the appearance of translations and commentaries on the Qurʾan in Persian (Lazard, 1963, 1995), Persian began to exhibit its capacity as a malleable language for conveying religious ideas and spiritual meditations along with its other already well-established function as a medium for administrative and cultural affairs.

The geographic progress of the language was now from a new direction, from Bukhara to Tabriz, and from Ghazni to Shiraz.

Each of these events, papermaking and the printing press, had a radical impact on the literary milieu and redefined the relationship between narrators and their audience, and writers and readers (Bloom; Chaytor).